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No. 11.7 HBI Hot Briquetting of Direct Reduced Iron

Fundamentals. During direct reduction, oxygen is removed from iron ore in solid state. This procedure results in a spongy structure of the product, thus "Sponge Iron", with a high porosity. De- pending on the raw material and the reduction process applied, apparent product density is approx.

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The increasing role of direct reduced iron in global

in the furnace where it reacts with the oxygen in the iron ore. Similarly, in the case of solid fuels such as coal, the carbon (C) acts as the reductant to form reduced iron and COx. This is different from blast furnace practice, where the ore is reduced mainly in the solid state, and carbon saturated iron (in the liquid state) is the product.

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Non Coking Coal for Iron Production IspatGuru

The coal used in the Corex/Finex processes is required to supply heat for the devolatilization of the coal, the gasification of the char, and the melting of the reduced iron from the reduction shaft. It is also to provide sufficient gas to the reduction shaft to reduce the iron ore feed.

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Published in International Journal of Network Management · 2016Authors Chang Cao · Zhengliang Xue · Hongjuan DuanAbout Ferroalloy

Glossary of Terms/ Definitions Commonly Used in Iron

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Solid metallic iron product obtained upon Direct Reduction of high grade iron ore in solid state itself without being converted into liquid form like that in Blast Furnace. Sponge Iron (SI) DRI is also known as Sponge Iron because of its spongy micro structure.

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Sintering Wikipedia

General sintering. The driving force for densification is the change in free energy from the decrease in surface area and lowering of the surface free energy by the replacement of solid-vapor interfaces. It forms new but lower-energy solid-solid interfaces with a total decrease in free energy occurring.

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US4195986A Selective reduction of nickel laterite ores

By partial reduction of the iron oxides is meant reduction of the iron content of the ore from Fe 2 O 3 to FeO, on the assumption that the entire iron oxide content of the ore is in the trivalent

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REDUCTION BEHAVIOUR OF FIRED IRON ORE PELLETS

Direct reduced iron is manufactured from direct reduction of iron ore by a reducing gas manufactured either from natural gas or coal. This route produces 96% pure iron which is called solid sponge iron or direct reduced iron or hot briquetted iron.

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Coal Wikipedia

Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from coking coal (a low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal, also known as metallurgical coal), which is used in manufacturing steel and other iron products. Coke is made from coking coal by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1,000 °C, driving off the volatile constituents and fusing together the fixed carbon and residual ash.

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Published in International Journal of Network Management · 2016Authors Chang Cao · Zhengliang Xue · Hongjuan DuanAbout Ferroalloy

Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery

Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags an emerging strategy to emission reduction Yongqi Sun, 1 Seetharaman Sridhar, 2 Lili Liu, 1 Xidong Wang, 1, 3 and Zuotai Zhang a, 1, 3

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Authors Subhasisa NathAbout Extractive metallurgy

EIA India's steel industry dominated by electric-based

Direct reduction of iron removes oxygen from iron ore or other iron-bearing materials in the solid state—i.e. without melting, as is done in a blast furnace. The reducing agents are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, coming from reformed natural gas, syngas or coal.

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The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke A Neglected Case of

Sep 17, 2009 · to make steel by reducing the iron's high carbon content (more than 4 %) to mostly between 0.1-1 % C and by alloying it with other metals. Coke, made by pyrolysis of coal, has several critical roles in the smelting process it high mechanical strength supports the ore and limestone charge, it provides a permeable medium for

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Influence of temperature and time on reduction behavior in

The coal-based direct reduction process makes ferric oxide metallic Fe into metallic iron under solid state. When the reaction temperature is low, reduction rate will be slow. When the reaction temperature is too high, it is prone to bond and will cause the waste of energy.

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CiteSeerX — Reduction of Iron Ore with Non Coking Coal

The reduction of iron ore with non coking coal or gas below the melting point of the iron produced is classified as Direct Reduction process and product referred to as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI).The iron making reactions in iron oxide plus carbon involve the disappearance of two solid phases (iron oxide and carbon) and formation of two phases ( metallic iron and gases).The location of the regions where the

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sponge iron process

Jul 29, 2010 · We are the largest producer of sponge iron using non coking coal as a reductant and and are having the largest coal based plant in the world. We shall discuss in detail all technical aspects of coal base sponge iron making with particular reference to control of important process parameters to achieve quality sponge iron in this august gathering.

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Isothermal reduction of titanomagnetite concentrates

Jan 26, 2014 · The final phase composition of the reduced PTC-coal briquette consists in iron and ferrous-pseudobrookite (FeTi 2 O 5), while Fe 2.75 Ti 0.25 O 4, Fe 2.5 Ti 0.5 O 4, Fe 2.25 Ti 0.75 O 4, ilmenite (FeTiO 3) and wustite (FeO) are intermediate products.

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Study of Reduction kinetics of Iron ore Pellets by

DRI or Sponge Iron is a porous solid-state product of direct reduction process, which is produced either in lump or pellet form. DRI is a good substitute for steel scrap for producing steel in EAF, BOF etc, which is resulted in a rapid growth of the sponge Iron Industry. In view of

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Reduction behaviour of agglomerated iron ore nuggets by

Iron ore nuggets were partly reduced by CO, H 2 and fine carbon produced from volatilisation of coal. Optimized pre-reduced nuggets, having high mechanical stability was directly charge in the raising hearth furnace for pig iron production.

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ENERGY INTEGRATION IN SPONGE IRON PLANT

Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal. Unlike the conventional process, the process does not require coking coal; the coke ovens in a steel plant are expensive and polluting units.

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Direct Reduced Iron authorSTREAM

PowerPoint Presentation Introduction of DRI Sponge iron is a term given to the product obtained by reduction of iron ore in solid state. Sponge iron is a mixture of reduced metallic iron, unreduced iron oxide and the associated with gangue constituents of the original ore. It is also known as directly reduced iron {DRI}, metallized ore etc.

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ArcelorMittal investigates hydrogen-based direct reduction

Mar 31, 2019 · The hydrogen-based reduction of iron ore will initially take place on a demonstration scale with an annual production of 100,000 tonnes. Our Hamburg site offers optimum conditions for this innovative project an electric arc furnace with DRI system and iron ore pellets stockyard as well as decades of know-how in this area.

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What is sponge iron? Quora

Dec 19, 2017 · Sponge iron is also known as DRI (Direct Reduced iron). It is produced by direction reduction of iron-ore in solid-state either by reducing gas ([math]CO+H_2[/math]) or non-coking coal at 10001050 degree C. Resulting iron is highly porous in nature and hence the name sponge iron.

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Metallurgical coal replacement and vehicle weight

furnaces (EAFs), natural gas based DRI reduces (GHG) emissions of crude steel production by up to two thirds over a metallurgical coal route. It is concluded that while an agreement to use less coal would grow Canadian exports of iron and steel to Asia, it would be hard to exceed the

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Kinetic Investigation of Reduction of Hematite Fines By

for the set_01 of our experiment, the reduction of iron ore (-90 mesh size) was carried out with120 mesh coal fines, with iron ore coal ratio 11, 12, 13 and 14, at fixed temperatures 873K, 973K and 1073K and at different time intervals for both the coal samples 02 and. 03.

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Kinetics of Iron Ore Reduction by Methane for Chemical

Jan 20, 2014 · The iron oxide in the ore, which is initially Fe 2 O 3, proceeds through a sequence of reaction steps and can ultimately end up as metallic iron. The reduction mechanism for the first stage reaction (i.e., Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4) was evaluated using a number of different gassolid reaction models.

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Researchers develop solid electrolyte for electrocatalytic

The first was his development of a robust, two-dimensional bismuth catalyst and the second a solid-state electrolyte that eliminates the need for salt as part of the reaction. Bismuth is a very heavy atom, compared to transition metals like copper, iron or cobalt. Its mobility is much lower, particularly under reaction conditions.

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Solid-State Kinetic Investigations of Nonisothermal

An increasing size of the resulting iron species correlated with an increasing iron loading. Significantly smaller iron species were obtained from (Fe(III), NH4)-citrate precursors compared to Fe(III)-nitrate precursors. Moreover, smaller iron species resulted in a smoother surface of the support material.

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An Introduction to Pyrometallurgical Technologies

At low temperatures, reduction of oxides takes place in the solid state. It is well recognised that carbothermal reduction of metal oxides in the solid state occurs through the gas phase. Overall reactions for reduction of oxide MO x to metal M (reaction (1)) can be presented by reactions (3) and (4) MO x + xCO = M + xCO 2 (3) CO 2 + C = 2CO (4)

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What is the difference between sponge iron and billets

Dec 30, 2016 · Sponge iron is a metallic product produced through direct reduction of iron ore in the solid state. It is a substitute for scrap and is mainly used in making steel through the secondary route. It is a substitute for scrap and is mainly used in making steel through the secondary route.

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Iron Essential Chemical Industry

Manufacture of iron. Coke, a porous solid, provides carbon for the reduction reactions and is also the main fuel used in the furnace. It is made on site by heating coal to ca 1200 K in the absence of air for up to 20 hours in a battery of coke-ovens. The residue is coke, and

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Why is a DRI, or a direct reducing iron, also called a

Dec 05, 2018 · Direct reduced iron is produced by the reduction of iron ore by using non-coking coal or various reducing agents (reducing gas). The reduction of iron is done at a very high temperature but below the melting point of iron. The reduction process ta

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